Vascular dementia, considered the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, results from injuries to the vessels supplying blood to the brain, often after a stroke or series of strokes. Vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairment arise as a result of risk factors that similarly increase the risk for cerebrovascular disease (stroke), including atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol. The symptoms of vascular dementia can be similar to those of Alzheimer’s, and both conditions can occur at the same time. Symptoms of vascular dementia can begin suddenly and worsen or improve during one’s lifetime.
Some types of vascular dementia include:
Research has shown that Alzheimer’s and vascular disease-associated cognitive impairment are closely intertwined. For example, a large proportion of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s also have brain damage caused by vascular disease. In addition, several studies have found that many of the major risk factors for vascular disease may also be risk factors for Alzheimer’s.
The overlap between these two types of dementia may be important because medications and lifestyle changes known to help prevent vascular disease, such as controlling high blood pressure, lowering cholesterol, and engaging in physical activity, may also help prevent Alzheimer’s disease.